Greg Killian: A Rosh Chodesh (New Moon) - In this study
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In this study I would like to examine Rosh Chodesh, the New Moon, as a mitzva and as a celebration. Rosh Chodesh has a special Maftir and a special ashlamata (Haftorah) festival readings which are read, in addition to the normal Torah portion and ashlamata, on Shabbat. These readings interrupt both the the Annual and the Triennial / Septennial Torah cycles.
Rosh Chodesh literally means, "beginning renewal" and idiomatically means the "beginning of the month" or "new moon". Strong’s renders the following definition:
7218 ro'sh, roshe; from an unused root appar. mean. to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether lit. or fig. (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.):-band, beginning, captain, chapiter, chief (- est place, man, things), company, end, X every [man], excellent, first, forefront, ([be-]) head, height, (on) high (-est part, [priest]), X lead, X poor, principal, ruler, sum, top.
2320 chodesh, kho'-desh; from 2318; the new moon; by impl. a month:-month (- ly), new moon.
--------------- Dictionary Trace ---------------
2318 chadash, khaw-dash'; a prim. root; to be new; caus. to rebuild:-renew, repair.
The calculations for Rosh Chodesh were the fulfillment of prophecy and they represented great wisdom:
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 4:5-6 See, I have taught you decrees and laws as HaShem my God commanded me, so that you may follow them in the land you are entering to take possession of it. Observe them carefully, for this will show your wisdom and understanding to the nations, who will hear about all these decrees and say, "Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people."